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[ People | Motivation | Overview | Demos | Relevant Bibliography | Related Projects | Acknowledgements ]

People

Faculty
Sharad Mehrotra
Department of Information and Computer Science
424 Computer Science,
University of California at Irvine,
Irvine, CA 92697-3425

Students
Michael Ortega
Kaushik Chakrabarti
Kriengkrai Porkaew

Previous Members
Thomas S. Huang (Faculty, U of Illinois at Urbana)
Yong Rui
Yueting Zhuang


NSF Project Reports

2002 NSF IDM Project Reports [ MSWord | PDF ]
2001 NSF IDM Project Reports [ MSWord | PDF ]
2000 NSF IDM Project Reports [ MSWord | PDF ]

Motivation

Many emerging applications such as multimedia digital libraries, medical image databases require accessing multimedia information based on their content. Traditional text based information retrieval techniques do not suffice due to the complexity of capturing visual content using textual description and the high degree of human effort in developing the suitable descriptions. An alternative approach is to describe images/videos based on visual properties (such as color, texture, and shape) and support retrieval based on these features. Such an approach to visual information retrieval requires interdisciplinary research in the areas of image processing and computer vision (to extract salient features from the visual media that capture its content), information retrieval (to define a notion of similarity between multimedia objects), and database management (to support efficient storage of multimedia objects and retrieval based on the degree of match). Our research addresses the information retrieval and database management challenges in content-based multimedia retrieval.

Overview

The goals of the MARS project is to design and develop an integrated multimedia information retrieval and database management infrastructure, entitled Multimedia Analysis and Retrieval System (MARS), that supports multimedia information as first-class objects suited for storage and retrieval based on their content. Specifically, research in the MARS project is categorized into the following four sub-areas each of which contribute to the development of the integrated infrastructure.

  • Multimedia Content Representation:
    extraction of multimedia content including low-level visual features from images, shots and scenes from videos, textual annotations (user-provided or automatically extracted from videos). Content-based representation of multimedia objects in databases.
  • Multimedia Information Retrieval:
    development of content-based multimedia retrieval techniques including multimedia retrieval models and interactive query refinement techniques to map user's high-level semantic queries to low-level feature based representations.
  • Multimedia Feature Indexing:
    to efficiently support retrieval based on feature similarity. Techniques will be developed for overcoming the high dimensionality and non-Euclidean nature of feature data.
  • Multimedia Database Management:
    techniques to effectively and efficiently incorporate content-based retrieval of multimedia information into structured database processing. Exploration of extensions to existing data models to support ranked retrieval and interactive query refinement and approaches to integrate multimedia feature indexing techniques as access methods in database management systems. Study impact of ranked retrieval on query processing techniques.
  • Our work has focused on exploring techniques for multimedia object and query representation, multimedia information retrieval, and developing mechanisms for efficient indexing of highly multidimensional feature spaces. Our progress can be categorized into the following:

  • Video Representation:
    Motivated with the role of a table of content (ToC) used in accessing a book, we developed algorithms to structure a video into a set of scenes which represents a video ToC. This ToC can be used to support effective user access (browsing and retrieval) of video. We then explored a clustering based approach to extract key frames from scenes identified in the video ToC. Some references (below) are: 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 13.
  • Indexing Highly Multidimensional Spaces:
    We developed a hybrid tree data structure to support high-dimension feature indexing in multimedia databases. The hybrid tree combines the positive aspects of bounding region (BR)-based data structures (e.g., R-tree, SS-tree) and space partitioning (SP) based approaches (e.g., KDB-tree, hB-tree) into a single search structure to achieve superior performance and scalability to high dimensionalities than either of the two approaches. Some references include (below): 1, and 18.
  • Multimedia Information Retrieval:
    We made significant progress on multimedia information retrieval specially on adapting relevance feedback as an approach to learning user's information need in image databases. With relevance feedback, the user is relieved of the burden to state their exact information need based on the feature sets supported in the system. Instead, the system learns both the query representation, and the distance/similarity measures that a user has in mind for the feature spaces using positive/negative feedback over examples from the user. Some references (below) are: 2,5, 6, 1.
  • Supporting Multidimensional Data Structures as Access Methods:
    We have developed the first granular locking approach to concurrency control in multidimensional data structures. Our solution provides a scalable solution to integrating multidimensional data structures into DBMSs as an access method. Some references (below) are: 3, and 23.

  • Demos

    Some of the demos based on MARS research

    Relevant Bibliography

    For online access to these publications follow this link.

      1999

    1. K. Porkaew, K. Chakrabarti, and S. Mehrotra, "Query Refinement for Content-based Multimedia Retrieval in MARS", (submitted for publication), 1999
    2. K. Porkaew, S. Mehrotra, M. Ortega, "Query Reformulation for Content-based Multimedia Retrieval in MARS", In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, (ICMCS), Florence, Italy, June 7-11, 1999 (poster paper).
    3. K. Porkaew, S. Mehrotra, M. Ortega, and K. Chakrabarti, "Similarity Search Using Multiple Examples in MARS", In Proceedings of the International Conference on Visual Information Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 2-4, 1999
    4. Kaushik Chakrabarti, and Sharad Mehrotra, "Efficient Concurrency Control in Multidimensional Access Methods", To Appear in Proceedings of ACM SIGMOD Conference on Management of Data", 1999.
    5. Kaushik Chakrabarti, and Sharad Mehrotra, "The Hybrid Tree: An Index Structure for High Dimensional Feature Spaces", To Appear in Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), Sydney, Australia, March 23-26, 1999.
    6. Michael Ortega, Yong Rui, Kaushik Chakrabarti, Kriengkrai Porkaew, Sharad Mehrotra, and Thomas S. Huang, Supporting Ranked Boolean Similarity Queries in MARS, Appeared in IEEE Tran on Knowledge and Data Engineering , Vol. 10, No. 6, December 1998.
    7. Kaushik Chakrabarti, and Sharad Mehrotra, "Dynamic Granular Locking Approach to Phantom Protection in R-trees", Appeared in Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), Orlando, Florida, February 23-27, 1998.
    8. Michael Ortega, Kaushik Chakrabarti, Kriengkrai Porkaew, and Sharad Mehrotra, Cross media validation in a multimedia retreival system , ACM Digital Libraries 98, Workshop on Digital Library Metrics, Pittsburgh, PA, June 23-26, 1998
    9. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, Michael Ortega, and Sharad Mehrotra, Relevance Feedback: A Power Tool in Interactive Content-Based Image Retrieval, IEEE Tran on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Special Issue on Segmentation, Description, and Retrieval of Video Content, Vol 8, No. 5, pages 644-655, Sept, 1998
    10. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, Michael Ortega, and Sharad Mehrotra, Information Retrieval Beyond the Text Document, Appeared in Proceedings of Library Trend, 1998
    11. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra, Browsing and Retrieving Video Content in a Unified Framework , Appeared in Proceedings of IEEE MMSP98 workshop, LA, CA
    12. Yueting Zhuang, Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra, Applying Semantic Association to Support Content-Based Video Retrieval, Appeared in Proceedings of IEEE VLBV98 workshop, Urbana, IL
    13. Yueting Zhuang, Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra, Adaptive Key Frame Extraction Using Unsupervised Clustering , Appeared in Proceedings of IEEE Int Conf on Image Processing , Oct, 1998, Chicago, IL
    14. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang and Sharad Mehrotra, Exploring Video Structure Beyond The Shots , Appeared in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), June 28-July 1, 1998, Austin, Texas USA
    15. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra, Relevance Feedback Techniques in Interactive Content-Based Image Retrieval , Appeared in Proceedings of IS&T and SPIE Storage and Retrieval of Image and Video Databases VI, January 24-30, 1998, San Jose, CA.
    16. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra, Constructing Table-of-Content for Videos , ACM Multimedia Systems Journal, Special Issue Multimedia Systems on Video Libraries,
    17. 1998

    18. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra, Suggestions to the Draft of MPEG-7 Requirements, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 M3107, MPEG98
    19. Kaushik Chakrabarti, Sharad Mehrotra, Michael Ortega, Kriengkrai Porkaew and Robert Winkler, "Processing Uncertainty Queries in Database Management Systems", Appeared in Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on the Federated Lab on Interactive and Advanced Display, Army Research Labs, College Park, MD, February 2-6, 1998.
    20. Michael Ortega, Yong Rui, Kaushik Chakrabarti, Sharad Mehrotra, and Thomas S. Huang, "Supporting Similarity Queries in MARS", Appeared in Proceedings of the 5th ACM Int. Multimedia Conference, Seattle, Washington, November 8-14, 1997.
    21. Sharad Mehrotra, Yong Rui, Kaushik Chakrabarti, Michael Ortega, and Thomas S. Huang, "Multimedia Analysis and Retrieval System", Appeared in Proceedings of the 3rd Int. Workshop on Multimedia Information Systems, Como, Italy, September 25-27, 1997.
    22. Sharad Mehrotra, Yong Rui, Michael Ortega, and Thomas S. Huang, "Supporting Content-based Queries over Images in MARS", Appeared in Proceedings of the 4th IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems, Chateau Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, June 3-6, 1997.
    23. Kaushik Chakrabarti, Yong Rui and Sharad Mehrotra, "Dynamic Clustering for Multimedia Information Retrieval ",
    24. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, Sharad Mehrotra, and Michael Ortega, "Automatic Matching Tool Selection via Relevance Feedback in MARS", Appeared in Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Visual Information Systems, San Diego, California, December 15-17, 1997.
    25. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, Sharad Mehrotra, and Michael Ortega, "A Relevance Feedback Architecture in Content-based Multimedia Information Retrieval Systems", Appeared in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Content-based Access of Image and Video Libraries, Puerto Rico, June 20, 1997.
    26. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra, "Content-based Image Retrieval with Relevance Feedback in MARS", Appeared in Proceedings of IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP'97), Santa Barbara, California, October 26-29, 1997.
    27. Yong Rui, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra "MARS and Its Applications to MPEG-7", Submitted as MPEG-7 proposal, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG97/2900.
    28. Kaushik Chakrabarti, and Sharad Mehrotra, "Concurrency Control in R-trees", Appeared in Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on the Federated Lab on Interactive and Advanced Display, Army Research Labs, Aberdeen, MD, January 28-30, 1997.
    29. Thomas S. Huang, Sharad Mehratra, and Kannan Ramchandran, "Multimedia Analysis and Retrieval System (MARS) project", Appeared in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Clinic on Library Application of Data Processing - Digital Image Access and Retrieval , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, March, 1996.
    30. Yong Rui, Alfred C. She, and Thomas S. Huang, "Modified Fourier Descriptors for Shape Representation -- A Practical Approach", Appeared in Proceedings of the 1st Int. Workshop on Image Databases and Multi Media Search, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 22-23 August, 1996.
    31. Yong Rui, Alfred C. She, and Thomas S. Huang, "Automated Shape Segmentation Using Attraction-based Grouping in Spatial-Color-Texture Space", Appeared in Proceedings of 1996 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP'96), Lausanne, Switzerland, September 16-19, 1996.

    Related Projects

    Examples of other related projects funded by the IDM program include the work by:
  • Prof. R. Jain (UC, San Diego),
  • Prof. S.F Chang (Columbia),
  • Prof. Sistla, C. Yu., Ben Arie, and O. Wolfson (UIC),
  • Prof. Hellerstien (UC, Berkeley),
  • Prof. Ramakrishnan (Wisconsin),
  • Prof. Ozsoyoglu (Case Western),
  • Prof. Manjunath (UCSB),
  • Prof. Wesley Chu (UCLA)
  • Prof. Zhang (SUNY, Buffalo).

  • Acknowledgements

    This work was supported by NSF CAREER award IIS-9734300, and in part by the NSF CISE Research Infrastructure Grant CDA-9624396, and in part by the Army Research Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement No. DAAL01-96-2-0003.

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